During this summer, six students are working on Gephi with the Google Summer of Code. They contribute to Gephi by developing new features that will be integrated in the 0.8 version, released later this year.
The project which is done by Cezary Bartosiak focuses special attention on further development of dynamic network analysis (DNA) in Gephi. The aim is to create a framework which would make it possible to build and query a dynamic graph with use of proper API. It has got a practical purpose, for instance analyzing evolution of networks (see in particular M. Argollo de Menezes, A.-L. Barabási Fluctuations in Network Dynamics) or dynamic networks visualization. The article shows the most important features provided by this GSoC project.
In the current 0.7 version we can import dynamic graphs written in GEXF syntax and then filter them using Timeline component. Unfortunately, it only filters graphs topologies and that means hiding nodes and/or edges.
The obvious step is make it possible to handle dynamic changes not only of graph topology but also attributes connected with nodes and edges. It can be done by creating a proper API. This API could be used by other modules, like Statistics to make dynamic versions of them. Computing metrics like Degree Distribution or Clustering Coefficient for each time interval in the time series has got a great interest to analyze graphs within time.
So, getting down to brass tacks, the most important tasks are:
- A data structure to host dynamic attributes efficiently which would make it possible to present them in Data Laboratory module.
- A Dynamic API which has got the following features: the Dynamic Graph Decorator, that wraps the graph and a time interval, returns static graphs copies for given time intervals, attributes values arrays for given nodes/edges and time intervals.
- Adapting Metrics framework to use Dynamic API to propose dynamic versions of existing metrics.
There are also additional features, which will be done in the future (probably they will not be included in the nearest release):
- Dynamic visualization of attributes.
- Dynamic version of the Ranking module – dynamic visualization attributes transformation.
I’ll try to shortly describe how these features are done.
It is a very interesting task from a programmer’s point of view since it requires implementing a complicated data structure like Interval Tree (see also Antoine Vigneron – Segment trees and interval trees). But also users will judge it necessary. The purpose is to make it possible to read dynamic attributes from GEXF files and host them efficiently. Thanks to that we are able to get values of attributes of different time intervals. It goes without saying how powerful feature it is. To show how it is working, let’s consider one node (written in GEXF syntax):
<node id="1" label="Some node">
<attvalue for="0" value="abcdefgh"/>
<attvalue for="2" value="1" end="2009-03-01"/>
<attvalue for="2" value="2" start="2009-03-01" end="2009-03-10"/>
<attvalue for="2" value="1" start="2009-03-10"/>
As we can see we have got one dynamic attribute (id = 2) which has three different values in different time intervals. The first interval starts in the “negative infinity”. We simply assume that it only ends, never starts. But if we have got some bounds, for instance, a related graph has its start and end times, this attribute would “start” in the same moment as the graph. It is rather intuitive. The second interval exists from 2009-03-01 to 2009-03-10 and the last one exists from 2009-03-10 to “positive infinity” or graph’s bound.
After importing this to Gephi we can simply get values of ANY time interval we want, for example [-inf, +inf]. But we should know how to estimate a final value. In the above example we have got three values: 1, 2 and 1. To solve the problem which of them should be returned, we provide a set of estimators like AVERAGE, MEDIAN, MODE, SUM, MIN, MAX, FIRST and LAST. Each of them has got different behavior that depends on a type of attribute, i.e. for real numbers they behave like in statistics.
So, users will be able to get values of different time intervals on demand, for instance in Data Laboratory module or (in the future) see them on the screen as a part of a rendered graph. For instance we have got some attribute like priority. A potential user will be able to choose between several possibilities like: nothing (it means this attribute should not be visualized), color, stroke, thickness etc. It means, for instance, that if some node has got this attribute close to its upper bound its stroke thickness would be very high. And, on the other hand, if one node has got this attribute close to its lower bound only its internal color could be visualized.
For now it is possible to count a set of important metrics but all of them take a “static graph” into consideration. The idea of dynamic metrics is then to execute the static ones in a loop, where the graph changes according to time interval. The following screen shows that use of these additional metrics is similar to their static brothers:
Dynamic Metric (click on the image)
In the screen we can see only Dynamic Degree Power Law, but of course every dynamic metric will be implemented (during writing this article this module was still under development – it also means that the final product could differ from this one presented above). So, user inserts important information like time interval etc. and gets a separate report for every time interval. What are the other results?
The result for each node/edge is written in the graph, so one can see this in Data Laboratory.
General result is also written and presented in the report.
Evolution of networks, network dynamics and dynamic network analysis are hot topics nowadays. There is growing interest in studying these issues. It causes that there is bigger and bigger need of DNA analysis tools. In my opinion Gephi is heading towards being one of the best…